Friday, November 25, 2011

HISTORY OF COMPUTER

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Computers are used in today's technology has evolved since 6 decades off. Historical development of computers has long been originated since 1940 and can be distributed to four generations of using fully electronic sehinggalah to the use of micro computers.

Computers are tools used to process the data according to commands that have been formulated. Computer word originally used to describe people who perkerjaannya perform arithmetic calculations, with or without a walker, but the meaning of this word is then transferred to the machine itself. Originally, the processing of information is almost exclusively related to arithmetical problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks unrelated to mathematics.
Computers as Tools Calculate Calculate Traditional Traditional Tools and Calculators Mechanics Abacus, which emerged about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places up to now can be considered as the beginning of this komputasi.Alat engine allows users to perform calculations using the seed- grains are arranged on a sliding rak.Para traders in those days used to calculate the transaction perdagangan.Seiring abacus with the advent of pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its importance.
After almost 12 centuries, came another discovery in the case of machine komputasi.Pada 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who at that time was 18 years old, found what he described as a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father perform tax calculations.
This brass rectangular box, called the Pascaline, used eight serrated wheel to add up the number to eight digit.Alat this is counter-based sepuluh.Kelemahan number of these tools is limited only to addition.
In the Year 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) to improve the Pascaline by creating a machine that can mengalikan.Sama like its predecessor, this mechanical device works by using the wheels gerigi.Dengan study notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz can fine-tune his instrument.
It was only in 1820, that mechanical calculators Xavier Thomas de Colmar populer.Charles find a machine that can perform four functions of arithmetic dasar.Kalkulator mechanical Colmar, arithometer, presented a more practical approach in the calculation because the tool can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and the division. With his ability, Arithometer widely used until World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era.
Beginning of the computer that is actually formed by a professor of English mathematician, Charles Babbage (1791-1871). In 1812, Babbage noticed natural fit between the mechanical and mathematical machinery that is excellent in mechanical machines do the same tasks repeatedly without mistake, being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a tertentu.Masalah measures are developed to put the machine kemudain mechanics as a tool to answer Babbage's first mekanik.Usaha needs to address this problem emerged in 1822 when he proposed a machine to melakukanperhitungan differensial.Mesin equation is called Machine Differensial.Dengan using steam, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically .
Having worked with for ten years Differential Engine, Babbage was suddenly inspired to start making general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine.Asisten Babbage, Augusta Ada King (1815-1842) has an important role in the manufacture of machinery ini.Ia help revise the plan, seek funding from the British government, and communicate specifications to publik.Selain's Analytical Engine, Augusta a good understanding of this machine makes it possible to put the instructions into the machine and also make it a female programmer who pertama.Pada 1980, the Department of Defense United States named a programming language with the name of the ADA as a tribute to him.
Babbage's steam engine, although it is never finished, looking very primitive when compared to standard kini.Bagaimanapun period also, the tool describes the basic elements of a modern computer, and also revealed a concept penting.Terdiri of about 50,000 components, the basic design of the Analytical Engine using perforated cards (with holes) that contains the operating instructions for the machine.
In the Year 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also apply the principle of perforated cards to make his first penghitungan.Tugas is to find a faster way to perform calculations for the U.S. Census Bureau Serikat.Sensus previously conducted in 1880 took seven years to complete perhitungan.Dengan growing population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census count.
Hollerith uses perforated cards to enter census data which is then processed by the tool are mekanik.Sebuah card can store up to 80 variabel.Dengan using these tools, the results of the census can be completed within six minggu.Selain have an advantage in speed, the card serves as a storage media data.Tingkat miscalculation can also suppressed drastis.Hollerith then develop these tools and sold to the public luas.Ia founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 which later became International Business Machine (1924) after experiencing several times merger.Perusahaan such asRemington Rand and Burroghs also produces a card reader for businesses bisnis.Kartu perforation perforations used by businesses and governments to permrosesan data until 1960.
In the next period, a few engineers to make new discoveries lainnya.Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in the year 1931.Mesin can solve complex differential equations that had been considered among akademisi.Mesin complicated by the very large and weight because hundreds of serrations and the shaft needed to perform perhitungan.Pada 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to make a computer that applies electrical circuits elektrik.Pendekatan Boolean algebra is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or salah.Dengan conditions apply right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connected-disconnected, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric computer 1940.Namun in their projects stalled because of the loss of funding sources.


FIRST GENERATION (1940-1959)
Computer generated is fully electronic. Large computer (almost equal to a sleeping chamber) and categorized to the Main Framework (Mainframe), he uses a vacuum tiub to process and store the edict. Tiub sized vacuum such as menthol small lamp fast heat and flammable. The amount of vacuum necessary tiub very much in order not menjejaskan keupayaan computer. He also uses a lot of electrical power.
In 1946, the electronic computer is fully cooked witnessed by Dr. Prosper Eckert and John Mauchly had created ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator). ENIAC took the space of 140 square meters, weight 30 tons, using 130 kilowatts of power and 1800 tiub vacuum. His memory is stored outside by using suiz and wiring. She was trying to do the mixing and 300 5000 pendaraban moment. He is controlled by only a trained Engineers. John Von Neumann concept penyimpaan finally backing the use of a computer storing memories in the main storan. He uses a binary number.
Dr. John Mauchly and Eckert Prosper once again create the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) which reduce the use of vacuum tiub. He was faster than ENIAC and use the concept Aturcara Saved. EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) that uses mercury and tiub vacuum has been created for storing memories. UNIVAC1 (Universal Calculator automatic) creation of Dr.. John Mauchly and Eckert Prosper originally issued in 1951 was the first computer used to process commercial data. He also uses mercury to storan.

SECOND GENERATION (1959-1964)
Transistors and diod used to replace the vacuum tiub although it is flammable. A new way to store memories of Magnetic Terrace introduced. He used an iron-iron smooth-ridden by litar electrically. Can process larger. He first uses a high ranking pengaturcaraan language is Fortran (1954) and COBOL (1959) to replace the machine language. Produced minicomputer. He was less expensive and smaller in proportion to the Main Framework.He used for commercial data processing purposes, other than in the field of Universiti ketenteraan. (Example: DEC PDP-8, IBM 7090 and IBM 7094).

THIRD GENERATION (1964-1980)
IBM (Internatinal Business Machines) introduced the Framework for Major Sistem/360 contain adequate equipment to complete the equipment to meet expenses during tersebut.Sistem/360 pengaturcaraan introduces a new feature of the Operating System Concepts partnership period. This system is a collection of the care and menyelaras aturcara overall computer operations, he allows the use of computers.
Eternally stored in Main Memory (ROM) or storan secondary computer. This concept justifies the usage of many stesen berasaingan and escorted by the Master System in which processing may be performed simultaneously on something else, although the digunakan.superkomputer like the Cray-1 was introduced to the reviewer natural weather.

FOURTH GENERATION (1980)

Microelektronik investigation has triumphed produce Litar Bersepadu / Terkamir or Cip where thousands of transistors squeezed onto four pieces in terms of silicon through a process Pengamiran Large-Scale (Large Scale Integration). Chips began to replace the transistor as a computer logic. MicroKomputer is the smallest in the family of digital computers as early dinasilkan AppleII, IBMPC, NECPCdanSinclair.

Pengaturcaraan language BASIC, Pascal, PL / 1 C and Logo first used. Most computer languages ​​flyer with a "building-in" at the ROM for BASIC language. This language is the most popular language for microkompuler. Additional Perisian also introduced to help resolve the problem. Laptop, Notebook, Handheld and Palmtop introduced. He was smaller than Microkomputer and easy to carry everywhere. Internet namely a broad range of systems using TCP / IP was introduced as a series of edicts global partnership.(Processor 6086.80286, 80386.80486, Pentium, Celeron, PentiumII, Pentium111danPentium4).

FIFTH GENERATION (now)

Defining the fifth generation computer becomes quite difficult because the stage is still very young. Imaginative examples of fifth generation computer is the fictional HAL9000 computer from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL displays all the functions you want from a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence or AI), HAL may have enough reason to do percapakan with humans, using visual feedback, and learn from his own experience.
Although it may be the realization of HAL9000 is still far from reality, many of the functions that had been established. Some computers can receive verbal instructions and are able to mimic human reasoning.
The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible. This facility is deceptively simple. However, such facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human understanding relies heavily on context and meaning rather than just translate the words directly.
Many advances in the field of computer design and technology enables the creation semkain fifth generation computers. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capabilities, which will replace the non-Neumann model.
Non Neumann model will be replaced with a system that is able to coordinate many CPUs to work in unison. Another advancement is the superconducting technology that enables the flow of electrically without any obstacles, which in turn can accelerate the speed of information.
Japan is a country well known in the jargon of socialization and the fifth generation computer project. Institute ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) is also formed to make it happen.
Many news stating that the project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring new changes in the computerized world paradigm. Just wait for which information is more valid and fruitful.

Conclusion:

After reviewing the four-four generations of computers, it may be imagined difikiran us about how to shape the future of computers. Future computers will probably be on the generation or the fifth stage which uses the technology of the future.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Naruto, sasuke, sakura

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Well, this is naruto!

This fit he was a kid!














if that is, fitting already shippuden, he's already become sennin hehe
but so pretty cool loh hehe
















It's Sasuke!
cool is not it?!! O.o
Gile cool! (lebay-_-)










This right already shippuden

O.o tetep wrote cool huh?
wakakak














This sakura:


um, I commented what? no comment deh about sakura hehe











sakura shippuden shippuden:
I also do not comment what what deh hehe
simple-_-















Well, now a teacher of them: kakashi
Well, I think pretty cool anyway hehe
he was like really late, the real reason he was late because he had been used to eat his friend, Obito, but he's always looking for excuses to not make sense-_-







are next to it, Akatsuki! Hmm .. members that I know anyway Pain, Konan, Hidan, Kakuzu,Itachi, Kisame, Deidara, Tobi, Sasori. Excuse me, if there are members who have notkesebut









This picture fits naruto versus pain again.




This fits naruto vs sasuke at the end of the valley
This fits sasuke vs itachi

Sunday, November 20, 2011

collection naruto wallpaper

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                                               naruto